Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books:- Revolutionary Vinayak Damodar Savarkar has been a controversial personality of the Indian freedom struggle. While many people consider him a great revolutionary and patriot, there is no dearth of people who consider him communal and link him to the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. Whatever may be the fact, the credit for propagating the ideology of Hindu Rashtra and Hindutva goes to Savarkar only. Let us know in detail about the life of Veer Savarkar on mybestbio. today. veer savarkar biography, savarkar biography, veer savarkar biography in English, vinayak damodar savarkar biography

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography

  • Name – Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
  • Born- 28 May 1883, Village Bhagur, District Nashik Bombay Province British India
  • Death- February 26, 1966 (age 82) Bombay, India
  • Education – Bachelor of Arts, Fergusson College, Pune Bar at La London
  • What were – revolutionary, freedom fighter, thinker, writer, poet, dynamic speaker and visionary politician
  • Achievement- Establishment of revolutionary organization “Abhinav Bharat”, President of All India Hindu Mahasabha

Early life and education of Veer Savarkar

Veer Savarkar was born on May 28, 1883 in Bhagur village of Nashik district. His father’s name was Damodar Pant Savarkar and his mother’s name was Radhabai. Veer Savarkar was a patriotic revolutionary and he was an advocate of Hindutva. He completed his studies from Fergusson College, Pune.

Veer Savarkar had two brothers. In which the name of one was Ganesh Savarkar and the name of the other was Narayan Savarkar. When he was only nine years old, his mother died due to a cholera epidemic. And about seven years after that, in the year 1899, due to the plague epidemic, his father also died. After the father’s death, elder brother Ganesh Savarkar took over the responsibility of running the family.

Veer Savarkar was married to Yamunabai in 1901. He had two sons and a daughter. The sons’ names were Prabhakar, and Vishwas while the daughter’s name was Prabha Chiplunkar. Yamunabai’s father helped Veer Savarkar a lot financially and also bore the expenses of his higher education.

The burden of Veer Savarkar’s university studies was borne by his father-in-law. He obtained his BA (Arts) degree from Fergusson College. In the year 1909, Veer Savarkar went to London and obtained a law degree.

  • Savarkar was an atheist and he considered many things of Hindu religion as superstitious, which included cow worship.

A Childhood Incident (veer savarkar biography in English)

When Veer Savarkar was only 12 years old, he along with his friends tried to demolish the mosque located in his village during the Hindu-Muslim riots. This incident somewhere reflects his fanatical thinking and enmity towards Muslims. But some historians attribute this to the mischief done by the Muslim boys.

Friend Fair (savarkar biography)

In the summer of 1897, plague was spread in Maharashtra, which the British government was not paying attention to. Angered by this, Damodar Chapekar shot British officer W.C Rand, due to which he was sentenced to death. After this incident, Savarkar formed “Mitra Mela” to increase revolutionary activities against the British.

Innovative India Organization

While studying at Fergusson College, he mobilized the students and founded the Abhinav Bharat Sangathan in the year 1904 to raise an army of freedom fighters. During this, Savarkar read many books related to law, history, and philosophy and also took training by going to gymnasiums. In these days, he used to discuss with Lokmanya Tilak for the independence of India.

In protest against the partition of Bengal in the year 1905, he burnt Holi of foreign clothes. Years later, Mahatma Gandhi also did the same in the Swadeshi movement. The college administration got angry with this incident and Savarkar was dismissed. But on the pressure of the rest of the students and on the request of Tilak, he was allowed to take the exam and he passed with good marks.

London stay (1906-1910)

After graduation, on Tilak’s approval, he was awarded a scholarship by Shyamji Krishnavarma and left for London to study Bar-at-Law. The British officials present in India sent information to keep a special eye on them in London.

He started living in India House in London. There he met students like Lala Hardayal, Madanlal Dhingra, etc. Savarkar connected everyone with Abhinav Bharat.

During his stay in London, in the year 1908, Veer Savarkar had also written a book, whose name was “First War of Independence”. However, the British authorities confiscated it and the book could not be published.

During these days, Savarkar read Herbert Spencer, August Comte, and Mazzini so that he could formulate the theory of Abhinav Bharat.

  • Veer Savarkar refused to take the oath even after passing the barrister’s examination because he did not accept British occupation of India.

Assassination of William Hurt Curzon Wyllie and Jackson

Madan Lal Dhingra, one of Savarkar’s followers and best friends, shot and killed William Hurt Curzon Wyllie on July 1, 1909. That day, Curzon had come with his wife for a function organized by the Indian National Association at the Imperial Institute and when he was leaving the hall, Dhingra opened fire on him. By mistake, a Parsi doctor who came in the middle to save Curzon was also shot and died.

Madan Lal Dhingra was hanged on 13 March 1910 for the murder of William Hurt Curzon Wyllie. Savarkar opposed this and also raised his voice against an Indian party which believed Dhingra to be wrong. After this incident, Savarkar had caught the eye of the British authorities, so he immediately went to Paris where his comrades Hardayal and Krishnavarma, already persecuted by the British, had taken refuge.

When Savarkar was in Paris, Anant Kanhare, a member of Abhinav Bharat, killed a British official named Jackson. The British blamed Savarkar for these murders and when he came to Britain on May 13, 1910, he was arrested.

Savarkar’s Arrest and Escape Attempt

Veer Savarkar came to London from Paris on May 13, 1910 and was arrested as soon as he arrived. When Savarkar, who was in jail, heard that Veer Savarkar’s biography would be taken to India by ship via Marseille, the second largest city of France, he immediately made a plan to escape. They thought that by taking refuge in France, the French government would protect them from British law.

When his ship was about to reach the coast of Marseille, he pretended to go to the toilet, and by unscrewing the porthole, jumped into the sea and swam to the shore. But unfortunately the French police caught him and handed him over to the British again.

50 years sentence (vinayak damodar savarkar biography)

Due to his revolutionary activities, Veer Savarkar was sentenced to not one but two life imprisonment i.e. 50 years by the British Government. This type of punishment was a historic event. Because never before had a person been sentenced to double life imprisonment. And the prison chosen to serve the sentence was the Cellular Jail built in the capital of Andaman and Nicobar Island. This jail was infamous by the name of Kala Pani.

When Savarkar was brought to the jail, some of his companions were already there, including his elder brother Ganesh.

Torture in Prison

The prisoners kept in the Cellular Jail were made to do a lot of work. They were not even given full stomach food. Peeling coconuts to extract its oil, cutting wood from forests, working as a bull in oil mills and working according to orders in difficult places in hilly areas, Veer Savarkar had to do all this hard work like other inmates of Cellular Jail. Had to accompany.

Apart from this, the prisoners were beaten a lot for small mistakes and were kept hungry and thirsty for many days in the dungeon.

Release From Prison (Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography)

Veer Savarkar was lodged in the Cellular Jail at Port Blair from July 4, 1911 to May 21, 1921.

In 1920, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel’s elder brother Vithalbhai Patel raised the point of releasing Savarkar, which was also supported by Gandhiji and Nehruji. Savarkar himself also sent some mercy-petitions and as a result Savarkar was shifted first from Cellular Jail to Yerwada Jail in Pune and then to Ratnagiri Jail in western Maharashtra. While living in Ratnagiri Jail, Veer Savarkar wrote his views on “Hindutva” which were secretly published and publicized by his supporters.

After this, on 6 January 1924, he was released from jail with the condition that he would not go anywhere except Ratnagiri for the next 5 years and would not participate in any political activity.

  •  The credit for using the word ‘Hindutva’ for the first time goes to Veer Savarkar.

After Release

A few days after his release, Savarkar formed the Ratnagiri Hindu Sabha on 23 January 1924, whose objective was to save India’s ancient civilization and do social work. He insisted on adopting Hindi language as a common language across the country and called for the end of caste discrimination and untouchability prevalent in Hinduism.

Along with doing these social works, he became an active member of the Hindu Mahasabha founded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya.

In 1937, Veer Savarkar was elected the President of the Hindu Mahasabha and remained on this post till 1943. Under his chairmanship, the party promoted the ideology of Hindu Rashtra and Akhand Bharat. The Mahasabha opposed the creation of Pakistan and accused Mahatma Gandhi of Muslim appeasement.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

Gandhi was assassinated by Nathuram Godse on 30 January 1948. Godse was a member of Hindu Mahasabha and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. It is believed that Godse had also gone to Mumbai to meet Savarkar before Gandhi’s assassination. On these grounds, Savarkar was arrested and prosecuted, but he was honorably acquitted because the charges could not be proved.

Some Major Works of Savarkar

  • Savarkar was the first person in India to organize a revolutionary movement against the British Empire in London.
  • Savarkar was the first person in India who burnt foreign clothes in 1906, giving the slogan of ‘Swadeshi’ after the 1905 partition.
  • Savarkar was the first person in India to lose his barrister degree because of his views.
  • Savarkar was the first Indian who demanded complete independence.
  • Savarkar was the first person in India who wrote a history of about one thousand pages in 1907 describing the war of 1857 as India’s ‘freedom struggle’.
  • Savarkar was the first writer in India and the only writer in the world whose book was banned by the British and British Empire governments even before it was published.
  • Savarkar was the first political prisoner in the world, whose case went on in the International Court of Hague.
  • Savarkar was the first Indian political prisoner to make an untouchable a temple priest.
  • It was Savarkar who designed the first Indian flag, which was hoisted by Madame Cama at the 1907 International Socialist Congress in Germany.
  • Savarkar was the first poet who wrote poems with pieces of stone on the prison walls without pen and paper. It is said that he kept his composed more than ten thousand lines safe in his memory according to the ancient Vedic practice, until it somehow reached the countrymen.
  • He was the first revolutionary on whom the government of independent India prosecuted falsely and later apologized after being proved innocent.

Composition of Texts

  • He composed many books, in which ‘Indian Independence War’, My Life Imprisonment’ and ‘Andaman’s Echoes’ (all in English) are more famous.
  • Wrote research treatise on ‘Hindutva’ in jail.
  • In the book ‘The Indian War of Independence-1857’ written in 1909, Savarkar declared this fight as the first war of independence against the British Government.

Movies Based on Veer Savarkar Biography

In the year 1958, the Hindi film “Kala Pani” which won the Filmfare Award was released. In this film, the role of the hero was played by Dev Anand and the role of the heroine was played by Madhubala.

In the year 1996 also the film “Kala Pani” directed by famous Malayalam director Priyadarshan was made in which Annu Kapoor played the role of the hero “Veer Savarkar”.

In 2001 itself, a biopic was made on Veer Savarkar by Ved Rahi and Sudhir Phadke, which was released after many years.

  • The airport at Port Blair is named after Veer Savarkar – “Veer Savarkar International Airport”.

Death / Honor

Veer Savarkar, at the age of 82, on February 1, 1966, took a vow to fast till death. Obviously no common man can stick to this decision, but Savarkar stuck to his vow like a perfect yogi and on February 26, 1966 left this world and went to the other world.

There is no doubt that Veer Savarkar’s life was surrounded by controversies, but it cannot be denied that he tried his best to organize Hindus and eradicate the evils prevalent in Hinduism, and we should not forget that Veer Savarkar dreamed of a strong India and worked throughout his life to make it a reality. Let us remember their sacrifices and pay our tributes to them on the occasion of their birth anniversary on 28th May.

Postage stamp issued by Government of India on Veer Savarkar Savarkar was an eminent social reformer. He firmly believed that social and public reforms are of equal importance and complement each other. Savarkar ji died on February 26, 1966 in Mumbai. On the death of Veer Savarkar in 1966, the Government of India has also issued a postal stamp in his honour.

At that time, political instability started in our country and after the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi became the new Prime Minister of the country. Veer Savarkar was given this honor only to answer his political rebels. As a priest of non-violence, perhaps this is our only country, India, where two accused of killing the Father of the Nation get death sentence and one is awarded with national honour. The airport of Port Blair is named after him as Veer Savarkar International Airport.

Some Interesting Information Related to Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar

  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was an Indian politician, revolutionary activist and writer. In the year 1922, he was detained by the British Government in Ratnagiri Jail in Maharashtra where he developed the political ideology of Hindutva, later recognized as a ‘Hindu Nationalist’.
  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was the leader of the Hindu Mahasabha political party. During his tenure in the Hindu Mahasabha, he focused on popularizing the term Hindutva so that the main essence of India is created through Hinduism. Savarkar was a follower of Hindu philosophy and an atheist. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was the founder of a secret society called the Abhinav Bharat Society, which he founded with his brother during the Indian independence movement. When he was studying law in the United Kingdom, he used to be a part of revolutionary organizations like India House and Free India Society.
  • In the year 1901, Savarkar married Yamunabai Savarkar, a resident of Nashik district of Maharashtra. His wife’s real name was Yashoda. His elder brother’s wife was a friend of Yamunabai. Various patriotic poems and ballads written by Vinayak were sung by his wife after their marriage and soon she joined the soulful youth society as its member. This organization was founded by Vinayak Savarkar’s sister-in-law to inculcate the feeling of patriotism among Indian women. During the meetings of this organization women used to sing songs of Aba Darekar and poems of Vinayak Savarkar. Yamunabai’s father Bhaurao helped Vinayak financially to get admission in Fergusson College in Pune and bore all his educational expenses.
  • When Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was in England, Indian nationalist Shyamji Krishna Varma helped him while studying law in England. After completing his law studies, Savarkar became a barrister in 1909 and then a member of Gray’s Inn. In the same year he published a book titled The Indian War of Independence, which alarmed the British government.
  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was detained by the British government in 1910 and taken to India soon after his links with the revolutionary group India House emerged. When he was being brought back to India, he tried to escape. However, all his efforts failed. When French port authorities captured him and handed him back to the British government on charges of violating international law. Upon his arrival in India, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was given two life sentences at the Cellular Jail in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, totaling fifty years in prison.

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  • As a noted writer, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar published several books in which he advocated that complete independence in India could be achieved only through revolutionary means. One of his books, The Indian War of Independence, which he wrote about the Indian Rebellion of 1857, was banned by the British government.
  • When he was released from prison, he began traveling across India in 1937 advocating for Hindu political and social unity as a writer and a speaker. In the year 1938 he was appointed as the President of the Marathi Sahitya Sammelan in Mumbai and as the President of this organization, he started promoting the vision of India as a Hindu Rashtra. Damodar Savarkar organized his army consisting of Hindu men to protect the country and Hindus as well as free India from colonial rule.
  • He strongly opposed the decision of the Congress Working Committee in the Wardha session of 1942. The proposal was sent to the British Government and it read as follows-

Leave India but keep your army here.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • According to the Congress party, this resolution was taken to protect India from a possible Japanese invasion. However Vinayak Damodar was against the presence of British in India. Later serving as the president of the Hindu Mahasabha, he began to feel strained while performing his duties and resigned from the post in July 1942. At the same time, Mahatma Gandhi started the Quit India Movement against the British rule in India.
  • After the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi in 1948, he was caught in the Gandhi assassination case, but was acquitted of all charges due to lack of solid evidence. He was widely admired in politics after the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power in 1998, and his political ideologies and Hindu pantheon were recalled again in 2014 when Narendra Modi’s government came to power at the centre.
  • When Damodar was twelve years old, he incited his fellow students to attack a mosque in his village following the Hindu-Muslim riots in Maharashtra. When asked about the reason for the attack, Savarkar said in a conversation with a media house,

We vandalized the mosque for the sake of our hearts.

veer savarkar biography in English
  • In the year 1909, Ganesh Savarkar organized an armed rebellion against the Morley-Minto reforms. Vinayak Savarkar was arrested in London and then in Marseilles for his involvement in the rebellion plot. To avoid arrest by the police, he stayed at Bhikaji Cama’s house in Paris for some time. After his arrest in Marseille, the French government protested against the British government, arguing that the British government could not detain Vinayak Damodar Savarkar until he was given a proper legal trial for his statements. In 1910 his case was presented to the Permanent Court of International Arbitration and the following year, its decision was officially announced. This matter took the form of controversy. In the judgment, the court said.

There was a pattern of co-operation between the two countries regarding the possibility of Savarkar having fled to Marseilles and neither force nor fraud was sufficient to induce the French authorities to return Savarkar; the British authorities were not required to hand him back to the French. So that translation proceedings could be organized later. On the other hand, the tribunal also observed that there were “irregularities” in Savarkar’s arrest and handing over to the military police guard of the Indian Army.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • Soon Vinayak Damodar was taken to Bombay by the British Government and lodged in Yerwada Central Jail in Pune. The trial began before a special tribunal on 10 September 1910 and he was convicted under two charges. One was accused of involvement in the murder of the Nashik Collector Jackson and the other of involvement in a conspiracy against the Raja-Emperor. After two trials Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was sentenced to life imprisonment for fifty years. He was twenty-eight years old at the time of his sentencing. On 4 July 1911, he was taken to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and kept in the Cellular Jail as a political prisoner.
  • When Damodar Savarkar was in the Cellular Jail, his wife had come to visit him in the jail and she was to accompany her brother from Trimbakeshwar to Nashik. Where none of his friends helped him for fear of the British government, after which he had to spend the whole night in a temple in Nashik.
  • Damodar Savarkar filed several petitions to the Bombay government for concessions in his sentence while lodged in the Cellular Jail. But all his applications were rejected and he was also informed by the government that his second sentence would be considered only after the expiry of his first sentence. Vinayak Damodar filed his first petition on 30 August 1911 and it was also dismissed on 3 September 1911. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar filed his second petition on 14 November 1913 before Sir Reginald Craddock, Home Member of the Governor General’s Council.
  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar wrote that his release would strengthen the faith of many Indians in the British government. He wrote,

Besides, my change to the constitutional line will bring back all those misguided youths in India and abroad who were once looking to me as their guide. I am ready to serve the government in any of their capacities, as my conversion is conscientious, so I hope my future conduct will be. Nothing can compare to what else would happen by keeping me in jail.

veer savarkar biography in English
  • Damodar again filed a petition in 1917, but this time he requested a general amnesty for all political prisoners in the Cellular Jail. He was informed in February 1918 that his petition had been submitted to the British Government. King-Emperor George V announced a Royal Proclamation in December 1919 and this Proclamation included a Royal Pardon for political criminals. On 30 March 1920, Savarkar submitted his fourth petition to the British government, referring to the royal proclamation. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar wrote in his petition,

So far as believing in the militant school of the Buchanin type, I do not contribute either to the peaceful and philosophical anarchism of Kuropatkin or Tolstoy.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • This petition was rejected by the British Government on 12 July 1920. The British government released not only Vinayak Savarkar but also his brother Ganesh Savarkar after considering their petitions. The British government gave a written justification for its actions. It stated,

It can be seen that if Ganesha is released and Vinayak is kept in custody, the latter will become hostage to the former to some extent. Who will see that his own misconduct does not jeopardize his brother’s chances of release at some future date.

veer savarkar biography in English
  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was taken to Ratnagiri jail on 2 May 1921. During his period in Ratnagiri Jail, he wrote a book on “The Essentials of Hinduism”. These works later formulated the doctrine of Hinduism in India. He was released from jail on 6 January 1924 but was not allowed to move out of Ratnagiri district. Soon he started organizing a Hindu Samaj organization in Ratnagiri. Vinayak was given a bungalow by the British government where he was allowed to receive outside visitors. There he met many influential Indian people including Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Ambedkar, and Nathuram Godse. He became an accomplished writer during his detention in Ratnagiri and remained there till 1937. Meanwhile Vinayak was released by the newly elected government of Bombay Presidency.
  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar served as the president of the Hindu Mahasabha during World War II and as a leader he focused on the slogan – “Hinduize all politics and militarize Hinduism.” Damodar Savarkar stood by the efforts made by the British government in India during World War II and urged the British to provide military training to all Hindu males. In 1942, Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement, which was opposed by Vinayak Savarkar. In his opinion, Indian soldiers and civilians should follow the rules of the British Government during the period of war and should be alert to the conditions of war. He officially opposed the Quit India Movement by writing a letter titled “Stick to Your Posts” to the Hindu Sabhaists. He wrote,

Members of municipalities, local bodies, legislatures or members serving in the army… throughout the country should continue in their posts and not join the Quit India movement at any cost.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • At the same time, Savarkar encouraged Hindus to join the armed forces to learn the art of fighting. [9] In 1944, activists of the Hindu Mahasabha protested against the meeting of Mahatma Gandhi and Jinnah. He condemned the proposals of the British Government and the Congress Party to transfer power by giving concessions to Muslim separatists. After India’s independence, Dr. Syama Prasad Mukherjee, the vice-president of the Hindu Mahasabha, resigned from the party.
  • In 1937, the Congress won the Indian provincial elections by defeating the Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha. But in 1939, Viceroy Lord Linlithgow publicly stated that India was eager to fight World War II, after which several ministers of the Indian National Congress resigned from their posts in protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow. This alliance led him to win elections in Sindh NWFP and Bengal provinces. Members of the Hindu Mahasabha joined Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah’s Muslim League government in Sindh. On this occasion Vinayak Damodar Savarkar said,

Witness the fact that recently in Sindh, the Sindh-Hindu-Sabha took the responsibility of joining hands with the League in running a coalition government on invitation.

veer savarkar biography in English
  • In December 1941, he joined hands with the Krishak Praja Party of Fazlul Haq in Bengal. In 1943 the Hindu Mahasabha party allied with Sardar Aurangzeb Khan of the Muslim League in the North-West Frontier Province.
  • After the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi on 30 January 1948, the police arrested Nathuram Godse and his accomplices and conspirators who were involved in the assassination. Nathuram was a member of the Hindu Mahasabha and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Nathuram Godse was working as an editor in Pune’s leading Marathi newspaper ‘Agrani – Hindu Rashtra’ and its daily newspaper was operated by the company “The Hindu Rashtra Prakashan Limited” (The Hindu Nation Publication). Vinayak Damodar Savarkar had invested fifteen thousand rupees in this company. On 5 February 1948, Savarkar was arrested from his home and charged with conspiracy to murder and abetment to murder. He was kept in the Arthur Road Jail in Bombay. During the investigation the British police seized a large number of papers from his house; However, all these letters had nothing to do with the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Later Nathuram Godse took full responsibility for Gandhi’s assassination. Approver Digambar Baij in his testimony told the police officers that Nathuram and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar had accompanied Baij Shankar and Apte to Gandhi’s last darshan (view/interview) on 17 January 1948. Baez described the incident thus,

Savarkar blessed him “Yashaswi ho ya” (“Yashaswi hain ya”, be successful and come back). Savarkar had predicted that 100 years of Gandhi had been completed and there was no doubt that the task would be completed successfully.

veer savarkar biography
  • Revolutionary activists Gopal Godse, Madanlal Pahwa, and Vishnu Karkare were released from prison after completing their sentences, and a religious ceremony was held in Pune to mark their release. During this, Dr G V Ketkar, grandson of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, gave some information about the conspiracy to assassinate Gandhi, after which Ketkar was arrested. Gopal Swaroop Pathak, a senior advocate of the Supreme Court of India, was appointed by the then Union Home Minister Gulzarilal Nanda to re-investigate the conspiracy in Gandhi’s assassination. The Kapoor Commission provided the evidence of two close friends of Savarkar – Appa Ramachandra Kasar and his secretary Gajanan Vishnu Damle. It was also stated in the court that C.I.D. Bombay was monitoring the activities of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar from 21 to 30 January 1948. But it did not mention that Savarkar was meeting Godse or Apte during this period. Justice Kapoor concluded:

All these facts taken together were devastating to any theory other than an assassination plot by Savarkar and his group.”

veer savarkar biography in English
  • After Gandhi’s assassination, an angry group of people pelted stones at Vinayak Damodar Savarkar’s house in Dadar, Bombay. Later when he was cleared of all charges in the Gandhi assassination, Savarkar started making “Hindu nationalist speeches”, which resulted in his arrest. After the ban was lifted, he resumed his political career and continued to advocate the core social and cultural aspects of Hinduism. When he was in politics, his followers loved him a lot and some of his disciples also helped him financially. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and RSS Sarsanghchalak Golwalkar were not close to each other, but over two thousand RSS workers provided a guard of honor for Savarkar’s funeral procession after his death. McCain states in his book Divine Enterprise: Gurus and the Hindu Nationalist Movement that during most of his political career Damodar Savarkar and the Congress disliked each other and that after India’s independence Vallabhbhai Patel and C.D. Deshmukh was not successful in building an alliance between the Indian National Congress and Savarkar, the veteran Congress leader. Members of the Congress Party in India were not allowed to participate in functions that were specifically organized to honor Savarkar. At the first centenary celebrations of India’s First War of Independence, a free India held in Delhi, Nehru refused to share the stage with him. After Nehru’s death she was given a monthly pension under the ministry of Prime Minister Shastri.
  • Savarkar gave up food, water and medicines on 1 February 1966 and he termed it as Atmaarpan (fasting unto death). During his last days, he published an article titled “Suicide is not self-surrender”. In this article he said,

When one’s life mission is over and the ability to serve the society is no more, it is better to end life at will than to wait for death.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar died on 26 February 1966 at his residence in Bombay. His health condition before his death was extremely critical. He felt difficulty in breathing and was declared brought dead at 11:10 am. His last rites were performed by his family and relatives and after his death the 10th and 13th day rituals of Hinduism were discarded as requested by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar before his death. A large number of people gathered to attend his funeral. He is survived by his son Vishwas and a daughter Prabha Chiplunkar.
  • Vinayak Savarkar’s first son was named Prabhakar, an infant who died of smallpox when he was in London.
  • After Savarkar’s death, his house, valuables and personal remains were preserved by the Government of India for public display. The Congress party government in Maharashtra did not declare any official mourning over his death.
  • During his detention in Ratnagiri jail, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar wrote Hindutva: Who is a Hindu? Wrote a book named After his release from jail, he released another book titled “Maharat”. In all his writings he mainly focused on Hindu social and political consciousness. He described his vision thus,

Hindu” as a patriotic resident of Bharatvarsha. “Hindu Rashtra” (Hindu Nation) as “Akhand Bharat” (United India)”

vinayak damodar savarkar biography
  • Savarkar also referred to the emergence of social and political unity in India which included the union of Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism.

He advocated the view that Hindus were not Aryans and Dravidians,
Rather people who live as children of a common motherland, a common holy land.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • Savarkar described himself as an atheist and regarded ‘Hindu’ as a separate political and cultural identity. [11] His views on social and community unity pointed to unity among Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains, and excluded Muslims and Christians. According to him,

Muslims and Christians as “misfits” in Indian civilization who could not really be part of the nation. The holiest sites of Islam and Christianity are in the Middle East, not India, so the loyalties of Muslims and Christians to India are divided.

veer savarkar biography in English
  • For the socio-cultural preservation of Hindu heritage and culture, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar started the Ratnagiri Hindu Sabha organization on 6 January 1924 after his release from Ratnagiri jail. He often advocated the use of Hindi as a common national language without any discrimination on the basis of caste and untouchability. As a devoted Hindu patriot, Savarkar wrote a book called Hindu Pada-Pada-Shahi in which he described the Maratha Empire and he wrote another book called My Transportation for Life, which described his revolutionary life including imprisonment, trial, and detention. days are shown. Vinayak was an avid writer who published collections of poems, novels, and plays. A book titled Manjhi Janmthep (“My Life-Term”) was released by him in which he described his days of imprisonment in the Cellular Jail. ‘The Indian War of Independence, 1857’ is one of his most famous books.
  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar strongly criticized the religious practices followed in Hinduism as he believed that these practices hindered the material progress of the Hindus. According to him, developing a Hindu identity is not as important as practicing a particular religion. He raised his voice against the caste system in India. In 1931 he published an essay titled Seven Shackles of Hindu Society. In this essay he mentioned,

One of the most important components of the past orders that we have followed blindly and deserves to be consigned to the dustbin of history is the rigid caste system.

veer savarkar biography
  • On 1 August 1938, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar gave a speech in Pune in front of an audience of more than twenty thousand and in this speech he supported the right of Germany’s Nazism and Italy’s Fascism and talked about their achievements around the world while following national unity. I spoke He later criticized Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru for criticizing Germany and Italy and said,

Crores of Hindu organizations in India do not harbor any ill-will towards Germany or Italy or Japan.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • On 14 October 1938, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar suggested in one of his speeches that Hitler’s methods should be adopted to deal with Indian Muslims. In December he referred to the Jews as a communal force. Savarkar welcomed in March 1939,

Germany’s revival of Aryan culture, their glorification of the Swastika, and their “crusade” against Aryan enemies.

  • According to Chetan Bhatt, a noted Indian historian and author, in late 1939 Savarkar began comparing Indian Muslims to German Jews. In 2001, Bhatt stated in his book Hindu Nationalism: Origins, Ideology and Modern Myths that Savarkar believed that,

Both were suspected of harboring extra-national loyalties and became an illegitimate presence in an organic nation.

  • Bhatt said that Jews began to settle in their native land of Israel, which Savarkar supported and believed would protect the world against Islamic onslaught. In a public speech on 15 January 1961, he supported Hitler’s Nazism and referred to Nehru’s rule in India as,

Coward democracy.

veer savarkar biography in English
  • Rachel McDermott, Leonard A. Some historians such as Gordon, Ainslie Embree, Francis Pritchett and Denis Dalton claimed that Vinayak Savarkar advocated and encouraged Hindu nationalism which was anti-Muslim. Scholar Vinayak Chaturvedi argued in one of his articles that Savarkar was more popular because of his anti-Muslim writings. According to Savarkar, the Muslims in the Indian Army and Police Service were like,

Potential traitor.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • He believed that the Indian army, police and public services should reduce the recruitment of Muslims and ban them from working in factories where arms and ammunition are manufactured. He was against Gandhi’s concern for Indian Muslims. Renowned Indian historian Chaturvedi in his book “Rethinking Knowledge with Action: V D Savarkar, the Bhagavad Gita, and the History of War” states that Vinayak Damodar Savarkar’s views gradually shifted from “Indian independence from colonial rule” to “Christian and shifted to Hindu independence from Muslims”. In the 1940s Muhammad Ali Jinnah advocated a two-nation theory, supported by Savarkar, who urged the Sikhs to form a separate independent nation and suggested its name as “Sikhistan”. However, Jinnah wanted Muslims to establish their own separate country, while Savarkar wanted Muslims to live in the same country but under the suzerainty of Hindus. In one of his books titled Six Glorious Epochs of Indian History in 1963, he stated that Muslims and Christians wanted to destroy Hinduism.
  • In the year 2002, the Port Blair Airport in Andaman and Nicobar Islands was renamed as Veer Savarkar International Airport by the Government of India in his honour.
  • His statue was also installed in the Cellular Jail of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission of England put a blue plaque on India House. Wrote here

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, 1883–1966, Indian patriot and philosopher lived here.

veer savarkar biography in English
  • For his contribution to the independence of India, in the year 1970, the Government of India issued a postage stamp in his name.
  • In the year 2003, a portrait of Savarkar was installed in the Indian Parliament House by the Government of India.
  • After his death, the Shiv Sena party requested the Government of India to honor Vinayak Damodar Savarkar with the “Bharat Ratna”, India’s highest civilian award.
  • In the year 2017, Shiv Sena chief Uddhav Thackeray again reminded Savarkar to be awarded the “Bharat Ratna” and also suggested that a replica of Savarkar’s prison should be set up in Mumbai so that the youth of India would be familiar with Savarkar’s sacrifice. May it be
  • Two years after Vinayak Damodar Savarkar’s release from prison, his biography was published by an author named Chitragupt with the title “Life of Barrister Savarkar”. In 1939, Indra Prakash, a member of the Hindu Mahasabha, brought out a revised version with some additions. Its second edition was released in 1987 under Veer Savarkar Publications. Ravindra Vaman Ramdas concluded in the preface to the book,

Chitragupt is none other than Veer Savarkar.

  • During his period of house arrest in Ratnagiri district, a biography titled Swatantryaveer Vinayak Rao Savarkar Huanche was published in Marathi by Sadashiv Rajaram Ranade and was translated into the English book “A Short Biography of Swatantryaveer Vinayak Rao Savarkar”. Savarkar has been described as Swatantraveer throughout the book.
  • Actor Annu Kapoor played the character of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in the 1996 Malayalam film “Kalapani”, which was directed by Priyadarshan.
  • In the year 2001 a biopic of Savarkar was released by Marathi and Hindi music director Sudhir Phadke, who is also a follower of Savarkar. In this film, the character of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was played by Shailendra Gaur.
  • What was the title of the Marathi film about Savarkar in the year 2015? was released and was directed by Rupesh Katare and Nitin Gawde. The film tells the story of a man who took revenge on those who insulted the name of Vinayak Savarkar.
  • Famous Indian playback singer Lata Mangeshkar lent her voice to various poems and songs such as Jaystute Jaystute. Apart from this Shri Mahamangali, née Majasi Ne, Parat Mathrubhumi, Sagar Pran Talmala, which were composed and written by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. Savarkar was a good friend of Lata Mangeshkar’s father. Talking to DD Sahyadri, a regional channel of Doordarshan, Lata Mangeshkar said that Savarkar was like a member of her family. They said,

Savarkar, also fondly known as ‘Tatya’, was like a member of my family.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • In the same interview, Lata told how she had met Vinayak Savarkar. They said,

When my father had to go to the Harijan area, I also went with him. Mother was persuading me to go. Baba said that in the Harijan area an inter-caste meeting has been organized by Tatya over food. At that time it was a big thing to have an inter-caste gathering over food. Thus I was introduced to Tatya.

  • When Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was in London, he helped the Indians there in organizing several Hindu festivals like Raksha Bandhan and Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti. Through these festivals, he tried to create awareness among the Indian students in London. His slogan during Indian festivals was,

A Country. One God, One Caste, One Mind, Without Doubt We Are All Brothers

veer savarkar biography in English
  • During the same time he helped Madam Bhikaji Cama in designing the first Indian national flag, which was hoisted at the World Socialist Congress in Stuttgart, Germany.
  • When Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was imprisoned in the Cellular Jail, there was no provision for Indian prisoners to have access to pen and paper for writing. Savarkar, an ardent poet and writer, began writing with the soil of the jail by nailing nails on the walls and while there, he wrote his epic ‘Kamala’, consisting of thousands of lines. This poem was written by Savarkar as a dedication to his wife Yamunabai. After the incident, Savarkar was removed from this cell and a Hindi journalist, who was his friend, was brought to his cell. Later, when this Hindi journalist was released from jail, he wrote this poem on paper and sent it to Savarkar’s family members.
  • Damodar Savarkar’s younger brother and wife were allowed to meet him in the Cellular Jail after eight years.
  • In the year 2017, an American interviewer Tom Traynor claimed in one of his articles that Vinayak Savarkar had told Tom in an interview that Muslims in India should be treated as Negroes. In his article he referred to the conversation as follows,

How are you planning to deal with the Muslims?” I asked him. “As a minority,” he said, “in the position of your negroes.” “And do the Muslims succeed in separating and establishing their own country?” “Like in your country,” said the old man, waving a menacing finger. “There will be civil war.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books
  • According to Vinayak Savarkar, when he turned to revolutionary activities in 1897, the country was badly affected by famine and plague and the people of the country were suffering a lot. The British government did little to alleviate the suffering of the poor Indians. Many people died from the plague, which led to the assassination of Tyrant Rand, the plague commissioner, by the Chapekar brothers of Poona. Later the Chapekar brothers were hanged by the British government. His hanging made sixteen-year-old Savarkar resolve to drive the British out of India.
  • In a conversation with a media house in 1965, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar revealed that he never believed in Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violence ideology. They said,

I never believed in Gandhiji’s principle of non-violence. Absolute non-violence is not only sinful, but also immoral. This principle of non-violence crushed the revolutionary fervor, softened the limbs and hearts of the Hindus and hardened the bones of the enemies.

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography, History, & Books

Vinayak Damodar Veer Savarkar Biography FAQ

Q. When was Savarkar Born?

A. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, also known as Veer Savarkar, was born on May 28, 1883.

Q. Where is Veer Savarkar from?

A. Veer Savarkar was from the village of Bhagpur, in the present-day state of Maharashtra, India.

Q. How Savarkar was died?

A. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, also known as Veer Savarkar, died on February 26, 1966. He died of natural causes in his home in Bombay (now Mumbai), India.

Q. What is the contribution of Veer Savarkar?

A. Veer Savarkar made a significant contribution to Indian independence movement and Hindutva philosophy. He was a freedom fighter, historian, and a prolific writer. He was a strong advocate of Hindu nationalism and his works on the Indian freedom struggle and on the cultural and historical aspects of the Indian subcontinent are widely read and respected. He was also a strong advocate of the use of violence as a means of achieving political goals, which led to him being arrested and exiled by the British government.

He is also known for his works on Indian history, and his biography on Chhatrapati Shivaji, the Maratha king and warrior, is considered one of the most important works on the subject.
His ideas on Hindu nationalism and the role of Hindus in India’s independence continue to be influential in Indian politics.

Q. Did Savarkar assassinate Gandhi?

A. Savarkar did not translate any books or works written by Gandhi. He did however wrote several books and articles that were critical of Gandhi’s philosophy and methods of the Indian independence movement. Savarkar was a strong advocate of Hindu nationalism and believed that India’s struggle for freedom should be based on Hindu nationalism principles, while Gandhi was a proponent of non-violent resistance and advocated for a secular, inclusive India. The two had a significant difference in opinion and ideological differences.

Q. How long is Savarkar in cell jail?

A. Veer Savarkar was arrested and imprisoned multiple times by the British government during his involvement in the Indian independence movement. His first arrest was in 1909, when he was arrested for his alleged involvement in the assassination of a British official, and was sentenced to life imprisonment. He was sentenced to two life terms in Andaman’s Cellular Jail, also known as “Kala Pani” (Black Waters) and spent a total of 11 years in the prison . He was released from the prison in 1924 on the condition that he would not participate in any political activities again.

Q. Who is the father of Hindutva?

A. Veer Savarkar is considered by many to be the “father of Hindutva”, a term he coined to describe his vision of Hindu nationalism. He is known for his strong advocacy of Hindu nationalism and for his ideas on the role of Hindus in India’s independence. He is also known for his historical and cultural works on the Indian subcontinent. He wrote extensively on the subject of Hindutva and his ideas continue to be influential in Indian politics.

Q. How did Savarkar define Hindutva?

A. Savarkar defined Hindutva as the essence of being Hindu, which he believed was a cultural and civilizational identity rather than just a religious one. He described it as the “cultural and spiritual identity of the Indian people” and “the way of life of the Hindu people.”
He defined Hindutva as including all those who consider the land of the Indus river to the seas of India, as their holy land and spiritual motherland, including the present day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. He also believed that Hindutva was not limited to just the religious practices of Hindus but also included their culture, history, and way of life.
He also stated that Hindutva is not a dogma or a sect but the “ever-widening spiritual basis of the Hindu race” and that it is not based on any religious doctrine.
Savarkar’s definition of Hindutva has been a subject of controversy and criticism.


Many buildings, colleges, schools, chowks, bridges, airports have been constructed in the memory of Veer Savarkar. The jail in which he had suffered the punishment of his black water and was subjected to extreme torture, that jail too has now become a tourist destination after getting the form of a memorial. This memorial is established in Andaman and people come from far and wide to see it. This memorial is a symbol of the sacrifice of the martyrs.
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